Pop Music and Culture: CuBop, Up-Rock, Boogaloo and Banda. Latinos Making Music in the United States

Pop Music and Culture: CuBop, Up-Rock, Boogaloo and Banda. Latinos Making Music in the United States

CFA MH333/433 A1

MWF 12-1 CFA (855 Commonwealth) B36

Prof. Michael Birenbaum Quintero

Surveys the musical styles of Latinos in the US. Discusses the role of these musics in articulating race, class, gender and sexual identities for US Latinos, their circulation along migration routes, their role in identity politics and ethnic marketing, their commercial crossover to Anglo audiences, and Latin/o contributions to jazz, funk, doo-wop, disco and hip hop. Case studies may include Mexican-American/Chicano, Puerto Rican/Nuyorican and Cuban-American musics; Latin music in golden age Hollywood; Latin dance crazes from mambo to the Macarena; rock en español; the early 2000s boom of Latin artists like Shakira, Enrique Iglesias, and Jennifer López; reggaetón, race politics, and the creation of the “Hurban” market; and the transnational Latin music industries of Los Angeles, New York, and Miami.

Wednesday, March 30, 2016

Salsa

































If you're interested in salsa, one of the best books on the subject, by the Venezuelan César Rondón, happens to be online through the BU library.


Before there was salsa...
There was, of course, the Palladium. Tito Rodríguez: his "voice was suave enough to sound new, but it also had the vigor and mischief to get even the young tough guys to dance." (Rondón 11). After 1963, he turned to boleros, "those tender love songs that can only be rendered in Spanish" (Rondón 14). And Tito Puente.

The early 1960's charanga boom:
Charanga Duboney, with Johnny Pacheco and Charlie Palmieri (Eddie's older brother), Rondón 13 (rendón 15)
Salsa diehard Ray Barretto began with a charanga group (and without an Afro): here's "Charanga Moderna" from 1962, featuring violinist Alfredo de la Fé.

Eddie Palmieri
Eddie Palmieri and La Perfecta's two-trombone sound (borrowed from Mon Rivera, a plena singer in Puerto Rico) was a revelation in 1962, and would provide the perfect amount of New York grit for what would become salsa.

Willie Colón and Hector Lavoe
Salsa's young roughnecks.

Colón/Lavoe album covers























From Lo mato: "Calle luna, calle sol" by Willie Colón with Hector Lavoe (Rondón 68). Lavoe sings:
"Put your hand in your pocket, pull out your knife and open it. Listen to me, in this neighborhood they've killed a lot of tough guys. In these tough streets, you can't relax. Be careful with your words - you're not worth a kilo." 

Their albim "Asalto Navideño" - a pun mixing their usual street tough image with traditional Purto Rican Christmas caroling (sort of) - incorporated the cuatro from música jíbara.






















It also contains the first of many experiments by Colón with non-Cuban music - not only música jíbara, but Panamanian murga. Colón's later "El gran varón"  deals with homosexuality and AIDS


Héctor Lavoe
Lavoe, who was born in Puerto Rico and came to NY as a young man, was popular in part because of how much his voice was heard as reminiscent of música jíbrar, even though he was no traditionalist. He was wont to insert an improvised "Le lo lai" from música jíbara whenever the mood struck, even in a non-Puerto Rican song like the apocalyptic masterpiece "Todo tiene su final" ("Everything Ends"). New York Puerto Ricans identified very strongly with him, and songs like "Mi Gente/My People" (here sung with the Fania All-Stars in Zaire - Cuban music and salsa have been popular in West Africa since the "rhumba" days - in 1975, for the Ali-Foreman "Rumble in the Jungle"). He also sang religious themes, such as the santería-influenced "Aguanile."His most famous song was "El cantante," about a famous singer whom despite his fame and acclaim, has just as much pain as anyone else, which became sadly auto-biographical as Lavoe's inner demons took over his life through the 1980s and 1990s
"El cantante":

Rubén Blades
After Hector Lavoe left Willie Colón's band in 1973, Blades took up Rubén Blades as singer. A college-educated Panamanian from a well-off politically leftists family in Panama, Blades worked at the mailroom of Fania before getting artists to record some of his songs, and finally emerged as a singer himself and the composer of complex and thoughtful, often politically tinged songs that were popular throughout Latin America.
The "Stairway to Heaven" of salsa, "Pedro Navaja":

Eddie Palmieri
The innovative Palmieri never signed with Fania and never stopped experimenting or making msuic outside the box.
"Justicia"
Live at Sing-Sing prison, ("VP Blues" here)
"La libertad-lógico"

"Vamonos pa'l monte" (with Charlie Palmieri, live in Central Park)


Ray Barretto
In traditional/típico mode, doing Arsenio Rodríguez's "Bruca maniguá"

In modernist mode, "Cocinando"


Johnny Pacheco
"Soy el mejor" with Pete "El Conde" Rodríguez
"Lo que quiero es gozar" with Justo Betancourt (like Rondón says, the montuno begins before one munte is up)

Larry Harlow
"Abran paso" (with great period video)
Larry Harlow's "Suéltala" vs. Arsenio Rodríguez's original "Suéltala"
Harlow's "Divina Gracia," featuring Celia Cruz, from Hommy, a salsa version of "Acid Queen" from The Who's rock opera Tommy
Harlow's son/charanga phase: "El paso de Encarnación"

Celia Cruz
"Quimbará" with Johnny Pacheco
And in her pre-NY phase in the Sonora Matancera in Cuba, singing "Caramelo"

Típica '73
"Mañoño," with Adalberto Santiago
"Pa' gozá," recorded in Cuba with Cuban musicians

Meanwhile, in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rican Rafael Cortijo's group (featuring Ismael Rivera) (Rendón 12), here in the early 1960s
El Gran Combo, a later outgrowth of Cortijo's Combo
La Sonora Ponceña, featuring pianist Papo Lucca: "Boranda"

Post-Fania salsa (salsa romántica)
Salsa romántica: Lalo Rodríguez, Frankie Ruíz
Marc Anthony and La India together on "Vivir lo nuestro"
Gilberto Santa Rosa "Bomba de tiempo"

Neo-traditional salsa


Salsa was, among the things, a nationalist movement, as illustrated in the Fania filmOur Latin Thing (Cosa nuestra)

People have been, and still are playing rumba in the parks of New York.

Bonus: Salsa poetry
Here Afro-Nuyorican Last Poet and Young Lords co-founder Felipe Luciano reading his poem "Jíbaro/My Pretty Nigger" opening for Eddie Palmieri at Sing-Sing Prison, 1972.
Luciano opening for Palmieri again, here.
Pedro Pietri, founder of the Nuyorican Poet's Café, reading "Puerto Rican Obituary" (1969)

Bonus: The Young Lords

The Young Lords, whose 13 Point Plan included rights for US Puerto Ricans, the independence of the island of Puerto Rico, women's liberation, and solidarity with the Vietnamese people, began in Chicago in 1967, spread to New York (and beyond) in 1969, and was influential until the mid 1970s.





Monday, March 28, 2016

Doo-wop, boogaloo, Latin Soul and Puerto Rican-African-American musical interactions of the 1960s.


Nuyorican rock?
(In Puerto Rico itself, salsa- and rock-lovers would end up being opposing sub-cultures)


Seminal New York City doo-woppers Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers
From left to right, Jimmy Merchant, Herman Santiago, Frankie Lymon, Joe Negroni, and Sherman Garnes. Negroni and Santiago were Puerto Rican; Merchant, Lymon and Garnes African-American.

Joe Cuba's "Bang Bang" (don't let the false end at 2:45 fool you!). Keep an eye out for the timbales.

Joe Cuba's previous hit, "El Pito (I'll Never Go Back to Georgia"

Pete Rodríguez "I Like It Like That."  The bassline is essentially borrowed from Peggy Lee's "Fever" and some of the lyrics from Chris Kenner's 1961 "I Like it Like That."
  
Héctor Rivera "At the Party"
Johnny Colon's "Boogaloo Blues"


Proto-boogaloo
Noro Morales' before-its-time "Mississippi Mambo"
Ray Barretto's "El Watusi." (Bonus: LA R&B group The Orlons' "Wah-Wahtusi" with some pretty awesome video of the original Watusi dance). Willie Torres' "To Be with You". Richie Ray and Bobby Cruz "Lookie Lookie",  "Mr. Trumpet Man", and "Colombia's Boogaloo
(Based in part on the marriage concept of Anglo Californian Herb Alpert's Tijuana Brass, especially "Whipped Cream" and "Lonely Bull"

Boogaloo travels:
Boogaloo by boogaloo-hater Eddie Palmieri : "Ay Que Rico", featuring Cachao on bass and Cheo Feliciano singing) and "The African Twist" (in English)
From Puerto Rico (not New York) "Gran Combo's Boogaloo"

Boogaloo, Latin Soul, and other Black-Latino fusions
African-American Latin Soul:
Pucho and His Latin Soul Brothers "Got Myself a Good Man"
Cuban and Puyerto Rican Latin Soul:
Mongo Santamaría's "Watermelon Man"King Nando: "Fortuna" (from the LP "Orchard Beach Sing-a-ling")
Lebrón Blues: "Funky Blues"
Afro-Filipino-Nuyorican Joe Bataan in a category of his own
 "Gypsy Woman""What Good Is a Castle",  "Ordinary Guy"





Friday, March 25, 2016

Music of the Chicano movement




The Chicano movement was a confluence of related struggles: an assimilationist Mexican-American movement that sought equal rights of citizenship and political representation,;a labor movement organized around Mexican-American (and to some extent, Asian-American) farmworkers; a student movement that organized against the Vietnam War, police discrimination and brutality, equality of education, and negative stereotypes of Latinos in the popular media; and a nationalist movement organized around the idea of creating an independent and territorially defined nation.

The Chinao movement had politicalartistic, and of course musical ramifications.  Those musical ramifications were varied, but in general they can be described as passing from a very ambiguous acknowledgement of their ethnicity to a much more straightforward racial pride.

One stream in Chicano music was that of Texas artists like Little Joe Hernández and Sonny Ozuña, who started off as younger exponents of the orquesta sound. They were firmly based in the rock and R&B of the early 1960s.

As in Sonny Ozuña's Sonny and the Sunglows' Sam Cooke-influenced "Talk to Me":
Most of these artists, though, were shut out of the mainstream music industry, much more than their East LA peers like the Premiers and Cannibal & the Headhunters, and were closer to rural Mexican culture. Little Joe Hernández, for example, had grown up picking cotton and hearing conjunto and orquesta in Central Texas. Therse Texas performers included many songs in Spanish, mixing orquesta mainstream slickness with Spanish-language conjunto music and a more ranchero ethos, as in Little Joe and the Latinaires' "Borrachera" ("Drinking Binge"):

Musicians like Little Joe were influenced by the hippie counterculture and the Chicano movement to move even more strongly toward conjunto music, with a heavy whiff of hippie-ness. His song "Las Nubes" became the unofficial anthem of the farmworker's union, and featured a hybrid aesthetic, with  a traditional conjunto feel and rhythm and Spanish lyrics, but also a drum kit and electric guitar and some almost progressive rock-sounding interludes.

Another important stream was the rock and Afro-Cuban fusion pioneered by Santana. The path is more circuitous than it might seem. Carlos Santana was born in Mexico and grew up playing mariachi music. But he hated that music and was much more inspired by blues and rock in the multi-racial band he led when he moved to San Francisco. Afro-Cuban slowly began to come in with Mike Carabelo, a high school friend of Santana's who had picked up congas in drum circles, and especially from San Francisco club owner and rock impresario Phil Graham, a transpalnted New Yorker (Born Jewish in Germany and escaping right before World War II) who had grown up dancing in the Palladium. Santana played at the legendary Woodstock festival, to tremendous acclaim, especially when the Woodstock film came out.

This model, of Chicanos playing Afro-Cuban-tinged rock was influential for many bands, such as El Chicano, which, despite largely ignoring actual Mexican music, was quite political and up-front about being Chicanos.


Later, Los Lobos, of L.A., started experimenting with traditional Mexican music, and even put it into their cover of Valens' "La Bamba" for the movie of the same name - note the trad jarocho breakdown at the end of the song (2:20). Country-rocker Linda Ronstadt, a multi-platinum-selling artist who was the best known and best paid woman in the msuic industry during her heyday in the 1970s, and who had never highlighted being an Arizona Chicana, did an all-mariachi album called "Canciones para mi padre/Songs for My Father" in 1987, and two more albums of Mexican music in the early 1990s.

Wednesday, March 23, 2016

Richie Valens (1941-1959)

Pacoima, California's own Ritchie Valens.



Chicano Rock

We've already talked about some the influence of early rock and rhythm & blues on Meican-American performers like Little Joe Hernández and Sonny Ozuña, among others. Doo-wop was also a big influence on them, and other performers like L.A.'s Julian Herrera in 1956:

The Premieres, from LA,  (here in 1964)...
... Cannibal and the Headhunters, also from East L.A.


... and ? and the Mysterions, from Detroit.

These groups overtly highlight the fact that they were Mexican-American, and to a certain degree even masked it. There were some moments in they revealed it, as in the introduction to Texas-born Sam the Sham (Domingo Zamudio) and the Pharaohs'  "Wooly Bully" from 1965. Thee Midniters of East L.A. did a song called "Whittier Boulevard," an instrumental with a brief "Arriba, arriba!" at the beginning and named after a popular place for cruising ground for young people at the time.


Monday, March 21, 2016

Mexican-Americans and country music

Country music was influenced by Appalachian music, particularly fiddling, as well as cowboy song. But Mexican and Mexican-American music and musicians were also important influences.

Country Music (see Lewis' essay in the collection All That Glitters)
There was a corrido influence on Texas folksong, as in the work of Oklahoma-born Woodie Guthrie (1912-1967) from the 1930s and 1940s. For example, "The Buffalo Skinners" - lyrics here, although the melody is clearly from the Scotch-Irish tradition also found in English and Irish ballads and bluegrass.
The same corrido narrativity in Guthrie's music figures in "Deportee (Plane Wreck at Los Gatos)" and "Pretty Boy Floyd."

The corrido style of narrativity, and Mexican settings and themes,  remains an influence on country music, as in “Poncho and Lefty,” written by Townes van Zandt, and covered by many, including Willie Nelson and Merle Haggard.

There were also significant musical influence  of corrido and tejano music on the music of the country music repertoire. Mexican music would be prominent in the music of other Anglo country musicians, such as Jim Reeves (1923-1964) of Panola, TX, whose big hit "Mexican Joe" had a typically corrido-styled two-step beat.
Marty Robbins (1925-1982), of Arizona, popularized a song called  song "El Paso" (1955), which has the sprightly waltz rhythm of conjunto, the drawn-out vocal cadences of ranchera, as well as the corrido narrative style in the lyrics. The Mexican woman at the center of the romantic triangle the song retells was apparently based on Robbins' classmate from the fifth grade, Fidelina Martínez.

Mexican music was also an influence on the Texan fiddler Bob Wills (1905-1975), whose group the "Texas Playboys," with its novel use of big band arranging, was a tremendous influence on the sound of country music beginning in the 1930s (and is still felt in the work of musicians like Waylon Jennings, Tanya Tucker, and Asleep at the Wheel). According to biographer Duncan McLean, the young Bob Wills spent much of 1927 as a barber in the town of Rpy, New Mexico, a stronghold of Southwest Mexican fiddling. His band there was mainly Mexican, and there were so many good fiddlers around that Bob, no slouch himself, often ended up playing drums. The cowboy fiddler and eventual Texas Playboy Frankie McWhorter tells the following story about the "composition" of Wills' first national hit, the incredibly popular "The Spanish Two Step."

"He was working as a barber in Roy, New Mexico, when one day a little Mexican fellow came n. Bob had his fiddle laying there and the man saw it. Bob couldn't understand Spanish and the other guy couldn't understand English, but he gestured and asked Bob if he played. Bob didn't want to, so he said no. So the man asked if he could play Bob's fide, and Bob said he could. Bob said, "he played 'The Spanish Two-Step' and I locked the door where he couldn't get out and I made him stay there until he taught me that and 'Maiden's Prayer' [a Polish waltz that Wills would also eventually record]. Finally he nodded. I don;t know whether he needed to go to the bathroom or if I was doing it right, but I let him out." The Mexican taught him those two tunes. Later on he recorded "The Spanish Two-Step" and it was a bog hit for him, the biggest thing going at the time. It was a number one record all over the country."
It would also be recycled into other versions later in the career of Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys.
Aside from "San Antonio Rose," it, and other Mexican tunes and themes would also figure in "Mexicali Rose,""Spanish Fandango," and others.

Chicano country stars:
Johnny Rodríguez (b. 1952) in Sabinal, Texas, 90 minutes from the border, had a big hit in 1973 with "You Always Come Back (To Hurting Me)."

Freddy Fender, (b. 1937 as Valdemar Huerta), also of Texas, the eventual "El Bebop Kid." He had a big hit with "Wasted Days and Wasted Nights" in 1959, but he couldn't promote it, because he was put in prison for marijuana possession (apparently exacerbated by his association with a married white woman). He'd come back to great acclaim in the 1970s and 1980s, especially with "Before the Next Teardrop" (here sung in bilingual in a medley with another Mexican country standard, "Rancho Grande").

Meanwhile, the Tejano tradition was still going, especially through Flaco Jimenez, Jr.'s Texas Tornados, here accompanied by Freddy Fender and others.

They were joined by the East LA rock group Los Lobos, who had started off as rockers, but had arrived at traditional Mexican and Tejano music in the wake of the Chicano movement.

And in straight-ahead country music, Mexican-American figures abound, from country DJ Lydia Anderson to singer Juston Trevino.

Wednesday, March 16, 2016

Cuban music influence in African-American R&B

Black musicians and the maraca - Chuck Berry (of "Johnny B. Goode") used maracas in his first hit "Maybellene" (1955)...

... and Bo Diddley's "Bo Diddley" (1955) not only has maracas but is also a straight up son clave rhythm.
Dutifully copied, of course, by a maraca-shaking Mick Jagger ("chachachá"), here covering a Buddy Holly rhumba "Not Fade Away":


Maybe it 's the legacy of the Spanish Tinge, but plenty of New Orleans records have that tresillo/habanera bassline like pianist Professor Longhair's  1950 Mardi Gras classic "Go to Mardi Gras."


Tresillo bass (sometimes with the extra note making it a habanera, and often doubled by baritone saxophones) also was popular in the seminal rock records produced by New Orleans producer Dave Bartholomew who heard them on a Cuban record (and used it in his own hit "Country Boy" from 1949).
So, the music of Fats Domino ("Blue Monday" of 1957) and Little Richard ("Slippin' and Slidin'" from 1957) is appropriately tresillo-heavy.


Then, there were deliberate "blues rumbas" like Otis Rush's "All Your Love."


Finally, it's worth mentioning the ways in which funk used then Afro-Caribbean concept of dividing up simple rhythmic parts between different instruments to make complex rhythmic textures, as in James Brown's "Say It Loud (I'm Black and I'm Proud)," which also features a break using son clave at 1:35 and 2:32.

"Jewish Latin," Tin Pan Alley, and Cuban music in the commercial music industry

Many of the industrial songwriters of Tin Pan Alley's Brill Building were Jewish mambo-niks who frequented the Palladium a few blocks up Broadway. That  was the case with Jerry Lieber and Mike Stoller, composers of (for example) Big Mama Thornton's "Hound Dog," later covered, famously, by Elvis Presley. (Listen for the tresillo in the bass).

Lieber and Stoller and colleagues like Doc Pomus and Mort Schuman penned a number of songs with a significant (if not necessarily "authentic") Cuban feel for the mostly African-American R&B act they worked with.
 Check out the underlying habanera rhythm in  The Ronettes' "Be My Baby" (1963), The Drifters' (güiro-filled) "Under the Boardwalk" (1964), Ben E. King's "Stand by Me" (1960/61, from the same recording session as King's "Spanish Harlem"). The same figure would stick around long enough and be whitened enough to be used by Fleetwood Mac in "Dreams" (1977).

Three-chord Cuban songs formed another musical cell used in much music in the 1960s: "Caramelo" by the Sonora Matancera (with Celia Cruz singing) was repurposed as "Good Lovin'," first by an African-American group, the Olympics (1965), then a best-selling rock cover by The Rascals (1966). Another, slower, version of the three-chord Cuban son shows up in the Isley Brothers' "Twist and Shout" (1961) and the McCoys' "Hang on Sloopy" (1965). (This last song was later, strangely, covered by the seminal Cuban son pioneer Arsenio Rodríguez in 1966). All of this was with the involvement of Brill Building mambonik Bert Berns, whose music all had some degree of Cuban feel.

Boleros would also play a part in many rock musicians' more romantic repertoire. Elvis, of course, but also the Beatles:


This feel was taken up by black-owned commercial music as well, as in Motown. Listen for the conga break in this Tempations tune:
Not to mention the guaracha groove of "Cool Jerk"

Black US and Sahel music vs. Afro- Cuban and Kongo music

The great Dimi Mint Abba of Mauritania.

Compare with the raw voice and melismatic singing (and slide guitar playing) of gospel-blues master Blind Willie Johnson of East Texas.

Now, compare this Lunda song form Central Africa with Afro-Cuban rumba columbia (here including santería elements and interpreted by thelegendary Muñequitos de Matanzas). Look for similarities in rhythm, instrumentation, and syllabic signing style.


Monday, March 14, 2016

Cha cha rock n' roll

In 1955, Pérez Prado's "Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White" was followed in the charts by Bill Haley and His Comets' "Rock around the Clock" - recognized as the first rock song. So it's not like Halley or rock generally were totally divorced from he Latin dance craze. Halley's second single was "Mambo Rock."(For that matter, Pérez Prado tried to do rock too...)

Celia Cruz's knock-off novelty hit (she was still in Cuba with the Sonora Matancera) recognized how mambo had given way to chachachá which was followed by rock and roll:

"Louie Louie" by the Kingsmen:

The original "Louie Louie" by Richard Berry and the Pharaoahs:

The wierd Jamaicanoid English is borrowed "Havana Moon" by Chuck Berry (no relation) and generally from a mini-boom in calypso music (think Harry Belafonte's 1956 "Banana Boat Song/Day-O", but more importantly, the musical DNA of the song is straight off Cuban René Touzet's chachachá "El Loco."

Mexican-American rocker Richie Valens' "La Bamba" - another rock chachachá which Valens set to the lyrics ("I'm no sailor, I'm the captain!") of a traditional Mexican song. Note the 1-2-cha-cha-cha tapped out on a woodblock.
More famous rock cha-cha-cha's, The Rolling Stones' "Satisfaction"

Cha cha chá and Latin music in the late 1950's.


The "Chachachá" - its inventor Enrique Jorrín's charanga plays "Aprende a bailar chachachá":

Even after the disappearance of the chachachá in the late 1950's, the charanga stayed around, as in this Tito Puente version of "Pare cochero," from the late 1970s or early 1980s(?)

Leaning into the elevator (that is, elevator music) - Pérez Prado's enduringly cornball cha-cha-cha "Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White":

Meanwhile, the Rhumba Age continued, exemplified by Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz


And in Bernstein's 1957 hit musical "West Side Story"




Wednesday, March 2, 2016

Mambo Time

The Palladium, as imagined in the 1992 movie (based on the 1989 book by Óscar Hijuelos), The Mambo Kings. Tito Puente plays himself and the legendary Cuban singer Celia Cruz also makes an appearance.



Mambo popularizer, the Mexico-based Cuban Dámaso Pérez Prado's "Que rico el mambo," here featuring some acrobatically goofy dancing by the Mexican comedian Resortes ("Springs"):


Leaning into the elevator (that is, elevator music) - Pérez Prado's enduringly cornball cha-cha-cha "Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White":

One of mambo's great Puerto Rican Titos, Tito Rodríguez, performing the classic battle song "Avísale a mi contrario" - "Tell My Opponent": Warn my opponent that I am here - Warn my opponent that I am here - Let him come to appreciate sweet singing - After, I do not want him to say that I gave the rumba and did not invite him - Let him come to appreciate sweet sound - Warn my opponent that I am here - Let him come to appreciate sweet singing - After, I do not want him to say that I gave the rumba and did not invite him - Come, come the good rumba is calling…
Tito R. was an old smoothy, too, and could really nail the boleros, like "Tiemblas" ("You tremble [every time you see me]"). 


We already saw above the more well-known of the Titos, "El Rey" Tito Puente, above. Here he is again, playing a Palladium-era classic "Ran Kan Kan."

Palladium dancer in the 1950s

Again, "From Mambo to Hip Hop"


The "Chachachá" - its inventor Enrique Jorrín's charanga plays "Aprende a bailar chachachá":

Even after the disappearance of the chachachá in the late 1950's, the charanga stayed around, as in this Tito Puente version of "Pare cochero," from the late 1970s or early 1980s(?)